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Cambridge Healthtech Institute’s 8th Annual 
Lyophilization and Emerging Drying Technologies
Formulation Development, Process Optimization, Validation
and Regulatory Compliance

January 21-22, 2015

This popular conference covers latest trends and challenges in lyophilization, spray drying, foam drying and emerging drying technologies. The Lyophilization and Emerging Drying Technologies conference features in-depth case studies and discussion on developing scientifically sound formulation, process optimization for biologics and vaccines. It also presents cutting-edge research and case studies on freeze/thaw and formulation challenges, drying in cartridges, storage stability and strategies for scale-up from R&D scale to full production level, tech transfer and selection of container/closure systems.

We invite you to join colleagues in this discussion of the key challenges and solutions in lyophilization and other drying technologies, and see how experts like you are developing a scientifically sound formulation to deliver a safe and stable biologic drug product.

Exclusive Interview with Speaker: The Role of Physical Chemistry in Freeze Drying- From Product Characteristics to Process Performance
Timothy R. McCoy, MSc, Principal Scientist, Technical Development, Genzyme Ireland 

Keynote Speaker Interview: Neglected Factors in Stabilization of Proteins by Freeze Drying
Michael Pikal, Ph.D., Distinguished Endowed Chair in Pharmaceutical Technology & Professor of Pharmaceutics, University of Connecticut 

Day 1 | Day 2 | Download Brochure | Speaker Biographies 

Final Agenda 


1:30 pm Conference Registration

BUZZ Sessions png

2:00 BuzZ Session A

3:00 Refreshment Break in the Exhibit Hall with Poster Awards

3:45 BuzZ Session B
(More Details >>)

4:30-5:00 Short Course Registration

5:00-8:00 Dinner Short Courses More Details >> 


7:30 am Conference Registration and Morning Coffee

Lyophilized Formulation Development and Protein Stability

8:15 Chairperson’s Opening Remarks

Gerhard Winter, Ph.D., Professor, Chair, Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, LMU Munchen

Keynote Presentation

8:20 Neglected Factors in Stabilization of Proteins by Freeze Drying

Michael PikalMichael Pikal, Ph.D., Distinguished Endowed Chair in Pharmaceutical Technology & Professor of Pharmaceutics, University of Connecticut

Stability trends have traditionally been interpreted in terms of either native structure retention during the process or minimizing molecular mobility. While recent evidence does suggest that storage stability often correlates well with measures of “fast dynamics”, such as the amplitude of motion on a nanosecond time scale, correlations are not perfect. Here, we discuss two other factors that are often ignored, surface effects and coupling of the protein internal dynamics with dynamics of the matrix.

9:00 Lyophilization Process Design and Development using Quality by Design (QbD) Principles

Sajal M. PatelSajal M. Patel, Ph.D., Scientist, Formulation Sciences, Biopharmaceutical Development, MedImmune, Inc.

Lyophilization is a unit operation that is routinely used to stabilize an otherwise unstable molecule to achieve pharmaceutically acceptable shelf life. The lyophilization process is based on fundamental principles of heat and mass transfer, and the overall understanding of the impact of process parameters on product quality attributes has increased significantly over the past few decades. QbD aims at building quality within the process rather than monitoring offline at the end of the process. This presentation will describe application of QbD elements—risk assessment, process characterization, PAT (Process Analytical Tool) and Design Space—to design, develop and scale-up of the lyophilization process.

9:30 Minimize Protein Degradation during Lyophilization by Process and Formulation Design

Charlie (Xiaolin) Tang, Ph.D., Associate Director, Formulation Development, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

A model protein was lyophilized. Protein degradation (aggregates formation) was observed after lyophilization. A method was developed to understand the stress to protein during different stages of lyophilization process including stages of freezing, annealing, primary drying and secondary drying. The specific lyophilization stages were identified to have the most stresses to cause protein degradation. By optimization of the freeze drying cycle and protein formulation, the protein degradation was minimized.

10:00 Coffee Break in the Exhibit Hall with Poster Viewing

Advances in Lyophilization Technology

10:50 In Silico Analysis Design of Freeze-Drying Systems and Processes

Alina A. AlexeenkoAlina A. Alexeenko, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University

This talk reviews recent advances in application of in silico methods for understanding and improving lyophilization. Computational simulations have been applied to vial- and batch-level heat and mass transfer as well as modeling of various elements of lyophilizers such as shelf uniformity, product chamber flows and condenser performance. The integration of such models into a system framework provides a new process analytical tool for more efficient and robust freeze-drying of bio-pharmaceuticals.

11:20 A Critical Eye on Controlled Nucleation in Freeze Drying of Protein Drugs

Gerhard WinterGerhard Winter, Ph.D., Professor, Chair, Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, LMU Munchen

Controlled nucleation (CN) has gained attention as a process step promising reduced drying time and improved batch homogeneity. Many vendors offer systems that can be attached to existing freeze dryers. The question remains how much positive effect on the product (protein) quality can really be achieved by CN, whether it is valuable for highly concentrated protein formulations and how its implementation from formulations research into production should be managed.

11:50 Application of Controlled Ice Nucleation for Lyophilization of a Low Glass Transition Temperature Solution

Graham MagillGraham Magill, Engineer I, Pharmaceutical Processing and Technology Development, Genentech, Inc. – A Member of the Roche Group

Here we will discuss the application of Praxair ControLyo controlled ice nucleation technology to optimize the lyophilization of a low glass transition temperature (Tg’), high fill volume product. The impact of processing parameters such as ice nucleation temperature and post-nucleation cooling ramp rate on cake microstructure will be discussed. 

12:20 Enjoy Lunch on Your Own 


Lyo Process Development: QbD, Scale-Up and Design Space

2:00 Chairperson’s Remarks

Ian Whitehall, Vice President, Sales & Service, SP Scientific

2:05 Measurement of Vial Heat Transfer Coefficients: Nuances and Pitfalls

Robin BognerRobin Bogner, Ph.D., Associate Professor, School of Pharmacy, University of Connecticut

The design of a lyophilization cycle, its scale-up, and several PAT tools require input of a “vial heat transfer coefficient”, Kv. The classic equations for measurement of Kv (described in 1984) are applicable to a well-defined experimental protocol. Modification of the Kv measurement protocol requires revised equations to accurately calculate Kv. The use of accurate vs. inaccurate Kv in lyophilization design space and PAT will be compared.

2:35 Primary Drying Optimization Using a Three-Dimensional Design Space

Lindsay A. WegielLindsay A. Wegiel, Ph.D., Research Associate III, Pharmaceutical R&D Baxter Healthcare Corporation






Arnab GangulyArnab Ganguly, Ph.D., Research Assistant, School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University



The current approach to primary drying optimization using a design space is two dimensional whereby the processing conditions are set throughout the primary drying cycle. However, the product is changing throughout primary drying with regards to the product resistance (Rp). This is a key component of the design space calculations and thus adding the third dimension of time to allow for the changes in Rp will allow for further optimization and shorter lyophilization cycle times.

3:05 Laboratory Measurement of Collapse Temperature Predictive of Collapse in Manufacturing Operations

Vamsi KVamsi Mudhivarthi, Ph.D., Postdoctoral Fellow, Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Connecticut

Traditionally, freeze drying microscopy has been used to estimate collapse temperature, but it has become apparent that such methodology is not necessarily predictive of collapse during freeze drying in commercial containers. Previous studies suggested that methodology based on “Optical Coherent Tomography”, or OCT, is predictive. Here we demonstrate the generality of this early observation and present a theoretical analysis that supports the experimental observations using OCT.

3:35 Freeze Drying PAT using Heat Flux Measurement

Thompson_TNT.N. Thompson, President, Millrock Technology, Inc

A freeze drying recipe will be analyzed and then improved using Heat Flux measurement and Control. Heat flux measurements provide critical process information for every step of the freeze drying process, including: freezing, primary drying and secondary drying. By measuring heat flux in-process process parameters such as % of product frozen by nucleation, crystal growth rates post-nucleation(Controlled and UnControlled), end of freezing, thermal conductivity of the vial (Kv), product resistance (Rp), mass-flow, shelf surface temperature and product temperature can be measured. Additionally, a design space can be developed in a single run.

4:05 Refreshment Break

4:30 Plenary Keynote Session

From Yeast to the Brain: Advances in Proteomics (More Details >>

John YatesJohn R. Yates, Ph.D., Ernest W. Hahn Professor, Chemical Physiology and Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology, The Scripps Research Institute


5:30-7:00 Reception in the Exhibit Hall with Poster Viewing

Day 1 | Day 2 | Download Brochure | Speaker Biographies